Azerbaijani and Armenian forces battled for a second day on Monday after dozens were killed in an outbreak of heavy fighting that has raised fears of an all-out war between the longtime enemies.
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The former Soviet rivals have been locked since the early 1990s in a territorial dispute over the Armenia-backed secessionist enclave Nagorno-Karabakh, with deadly fighting flaring up earlier this year and in 2016.
The region declared its independence from Azerbaijan after a war in the early 1990s that claimed 30,000 lives but is not recognised by any country — including Armenia —and is still considered part of Azerbaijan by the international community.
Defence officials in both countries said intense clashes continued after erupting on Sunday along the frontlines of the region.
Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev on Monday ordered partial military mobilisation and General Mais Barkhudarov vowed to "fight to the last drop of blood in order to completely destroy the enemy and win".
The Armenian separatists announced that 15 more of their fighters had been killed and Azerbaijan increased its civilian toll from rebel shelling near Terter by one to six, bringing the total reported fatalities on both sides to 40.
With each side blaming the other for the latest fighting, world leaders have urged calm as fears rise of a full-scale conflict that could draw in regional powers Russia and Turkey.
Kremlin spokesperson Dmitri Peskov told reporters Monday that Russia was monitoring the situation closely and that the current priority was to "stop the hostilities, not to deal with who is right and who is wrong".
The Karabakh defence ministry said on Monday that 32 of its fighters had been killed in the latest clashes. Eight civilian fatalities have been reported, including an Azerbaijani family of six and a woman and child on the Armenian side.
Azerbaijan has not announced military casualties but Armenian defence ministry spokeswoman Shushan Stepanyan claimed that "dozens of corpses of Azerbaijani soldiers" lay on territory won back overnight.
She said heavy fighting continued on Monday morning along the frontline and claimed Armenian forces had won back positions taken Sunday by Azerbaijan.
But Baku claimed further advances.
Azerbaijani forces "are striking enemy positions… and have taken several strategic positions around the village of Talysh", the defence ministry said.
"The enemy is retreating," it added.
Armenian military officials said Azerbaijani forces were continuing to attack rebel positions using heavy artillery, while Azerbaijan's defence ministry accused separatist forces of shelling civilian targets in the town of Terter.
The escalation has stirred an outpouring of patriotic fervour in both countries.
"We have been waiting for this day for so long. The fighting must not stop until we force Armenia to return our lands," Vidadi Alekperov, a 39-year-old waiter in Baku, told AFP.
In Yerevan, 67-year-old Vardan Harutyunyan said Armenia had been anticipating the attack.
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